A design that evolved out of Artificial Intelligence is Artificial Neural networks (ANN), often interchangeably called Neural Networks. It is a mathematical or computational model that processes interconnected data (artificial neurons) to locate a pattern for the reason that data. In this technique you’ve input data, that goes via a connectionist way of output data. The system adapts and learns through the great number of data that flows through it. The effect is a professional decision making, or even predicting system, with a near 100% accuracy. Small wonder, clinicians have now been using AI and expert systems to offer better and timely healthcare to their patients.
In a study through the late 1990s, researchers Lars Edenbrandt, M.D, Ph.D., and Bo Heden, MD., Ph.D., of the University Hospital, Lund, Sweden, ventured to add 1,120 ECG records of Heart Attack patients, and 10,452 records of normal patients. The neural networks were found to be able to utilize this input data, and begin a relationship and pattern. This leaning phase was internalized by the system, and started identifying patients with abnormal ECGs with a 10% better accuracy than most clinicians/cardiologists on staff.
Speaking of other factors in determining Heart Attacks, an interesting research work have been published in a scientific journal from the Inderscience group, the International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Soft Data Paradigms (IJKESDP) underneath the name “A computational algorithm for the chance assessment of developing acute coronary syndromes, using online analytical process methodology” (Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 85-99, 2009). Four Greek researchers had ventured to produce a computational algorithm that evolved out of a far more current technique, namely Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). They used this methodology to construct the foundations of a “Heart Attack Calculator” ;.The benefit of OLAP is that it supplies a multidimensional view of data, that enables patterns to discerned really large dataset, that could have been otherwise remained invincible. It takes into account numerous factors and dimensions, while making an analysis. cardiology hospital hyderabad The investigation team obtained data from about 1000 patients which have been hospitalized as a result of outward indications of Acute Coronary Syndrome. This data included details on the family history, physical activities, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes level. This was then matched to another set of similar multi dimensional data from a small grouping of healthy individuals. All of this data were used as inputs to the OLAP process, to explore the role of the factors in assessing cardiovascular disease risk. At various quantities of the factors, intelligence could possibly be gathered to be used as a mix of dimensions, for future diagnosis of the extent of risk.
The ANN is more a “teachable software”, that absorbs and learns from data input. When properly computed, even at a fast pace with a tried and tested algorithm, it develops patterns within the input data, or a mix of multiple data dimensions or factors, to which confirmed situation could be in comparison to, and a prognosis declared.
In 2009, some researchers in Mayo Clinic studied 189 patients with device related Endocarditis diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. Endocartitis is an infection relating to the valves and at times the chambers of one’s heart, which are often caused as a result of implanted devices in the heart. The mortality of due to the infection could possibly be as high as 60%. The diagnosis of such an infection required transesophageal echocardiography, that will be an invasive procedure involving the usage of an endoscope and insertion of a probe down the esophagus. Needless to say, this was a risky, uncomfortably and expensive procedure. The researchers at Mayo, fed the info from these 189 patients int the ANN, and had it undergo three separate “trainings” to master to evaluate these symptoms. Upon being tested with various sample populations (only known cases, and a overall sample of a mix of both known and unknown cases), the best trained ANN surely could identify Endocarditis cases very effectively, thus eliminating the requirement for such an invasive procedure.
With modern day e-health becoming more and more data centric, access to relevant patient data is gradually becoming extremely convenient. AI and Expert systems using its ANN and computational algorithms, has tremendous opportunities to accelerate diagnosis, and effect patient care with speed and more and more accuracy. As AI advances, it will undoubtedly be interesting to observe it marks its footprints in Cardiovascular, Neuro, Pulmonary, and Oncology diagnosis and care.